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Working papers
Working Paper
SSRN Working Paper
Louis-Daniel Pape, Christian Helmers, Alessandro Iaria, Stefan Wagner, Julian Runge (2021)
Subject(s)
Strategy and general management
Keyword(s)
Price discrimination, personalized pricing, mobile apps, online games, freemium
JEL Code(s)
D40, L11
We use a unique dataset from a mobile puzzle game to investigate the welfare consequences of price discrimination. We rely on experimental variation to characterize player behavior and estimate a model of demand for game content. Our counterfactual simulations show that optimal uniform pricing would increase profit by+340%with respect to the game developer’s observed pricing. This is almost the same as the increase in profit associated with first-degree price discrimination (+347%). All pricing strategies considered—including optimal uniform pricing—would induce a transfer of surplus from players to game developer without, however, generating sizeable dead-weight losses.
Seiten
93
ESMT Working Paper
ESMT Working Paper No. 18-01
Stefan Wagner, Martin C. Goossen (2018)
Subject(s)
Strategy and general management; Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
Inventor mobility, alliance formation, interfirm collaboration, technological capabilities, pharmaceuticals
We link the hiring of R&D scientists from industry competitors to the subsequent formation of collaborative agreements, namely technology-oriented alliances. By transferring technological knowledge as well as cognitive elements to the hiring firm, mobile inventors foster the alignment of decision frames applied by potential alliance partners in the process of alliance formation thereby making collaboration more likely. Using data on inventor mobility and alliance formation amongst 42 global pharmaceutical firms over 16 years, we show that inventor mobility is positively associated with the likelihood of alliance formation in periods following inventor movements. This relationship becomes more pronounced if these employees bring additional knowledge about their prior firm’s technological capabilities and for alliances aimed at technology development rather than for agreements related to technology transfer. It is weakened, however, if the focal firm is already familiar with the competitor’s technological capabilities. By revealing these relationships, our study contributes to research on alliance formation, employee mobility, and organizational frames.
Seiten
54
ISSN (Print)
1866–3494
ESMT Working Paper
ESMT Working Paper No. 16-06
Julian Runge, Stefan Wagner, Jörg Claussen, Daniel Klapper (2016)
Subject(s)
Marketing; Product and operations management
Keyword(s)
Freemium, pricing, digitization, field experimentation
JEL Code(s)
M30, M20
Firms commonly run field experiments to improve their freemium pricing schemes. However, they often lack a framework for analysis that goes beyond directly measurable outcomes and focuses on longer term profit. We aim to fill this gap by structuring existing knowledge on freemium pricing into a stylized framework. We apply the proposed framework in the analysis of a field experiment that contrasts three variations of a freemium pricing scheme and comprises about 300,000 users of a software application. Our findings indicate that a reduction of free product features increases conversion as well as viral activity, but reduces usage – which is in line with the framework’s predictions. Additional back-of-the-envelope profit estimations suggest that managers were overly optimistic about positive externalities from usage and viral activity in their choice of pricing scheme, leading them to give too much of their product away for free. Our framework and its exemplary application can be a remedy.
Seiten
43
ISSN (Print)
1866–3494
Subject(s)
Entrepreneurship; Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
Patent indicators, patent system, product commercialization, pharmaceutical industry, drug development
Patent-based measures are frequently used as indicators in empirical research on innovation and technological change. Currently, there is little evidence as to what extent patent-based indicators relate to product market outcomes. Using a unique dataset that links outcomes from product commercialization in the pharmaceutical industry with detailed patent data, we relate patent-based indicators that capture either an invention’s value or the uncertainty surrounding the patenting process to the outcomes of the product development process. Our findings suggest that the speed of commercialization increases with value but reduces with uncertainty. Using a variety of alternative indicators we derive implications for the use and the proper interpretation of individual measures. Moreover, our study has broader implications as it highlights the detrimental effect of uncertainty on the speed of innovation.
Seiten
44
ISSN (Print)
1866–3494
ESMT Working Paper
ESMT Working Paper No. 13-09
Stefan Wagner, Karin Hoisl, Grid Thoma (2013)
Subject(s)
Information technology and systems; Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
Learning, knowledge acquisition, localization, patent citations, professional service firm
The literature on organizational learning asserts that external learning is often limited geographically and technologically. We scrutinize to what extent organizations acquire external knowledge by accessing external knowledge repositories. We argue that professional service firms (PSFs) grant access to non-localized knowledge repositories and thereby not only facilitate external learning but also help to overcome localization. Focusing on patent law firms, we test our predictions using a unique dataset of 544,820 pairs of EP patent applications. Analyzing patterns of knowledge flows captured in patent citations we find that accessing a PSF’s repository facilitates the acquisition of external knowledge. As the effect is more pronounced for knowledge that is distant to a focal organization we conclude that having access to a knowledge repository compensates for localization disadvantages.
Seiten
35
ISSN (Print)
1866–3494
ESMT Working Paper
ESMT Working Paper No. 12-04 (R1) and CEPR Discussion Paper DP9468
Dietmar Harhoff, Georg von Graevenitz, Stefan Wagner (2013)
Subject(s)
Entrepreneurship
Keyword(s)
Patent, patent thicket, post grant validity challenge
JEL Code(s)
K11, K41, O34
Post-grant validity challenges at patent offices rely on the private initiative of third parties to correct mistakes made by patent offices. We hypothesize that incentives to bring post-grant validity challenges are reduced when many firms benefit from revocation of a patent and when firms are caught up in patent thickets. Using data on opposition against patents at the European Patent Office we show that opposition decreases in fields in which many others profit from patent revocations. Moreover, in fields with a large number of mutually blocking patents the incidence of opposition is sharply reduced, particularly among large firms and firms that are caught up directly in patent thickets. These findings indicate that post-grant patent review may not constitute an effective correction device for erroneous patent grants in technologies affected by either patent thickets or highly dispersed patent ownership.
Seiten
34
ISSN (Print)
1866–3494
ESMT Working Paper
ESMT Working Paper No. 11-06
Johannes Liegsalz, Stefan Wagner (2011)
Subject(s)
Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
Patent system, patent examination, State Intellectual Property Office China, duration analysis
The number of patent applications filed at the Chinese State Intellectual Property Office SIPO grew tremendously over the last decades and the SIPO has become the world's third largest patent office by 2009. In this paper, we provide an overview of the institutional background of patent examination in China. Moreover, we empirically analyze the determinants of the grant lags applicants have to expect at the SIPO. The multivariate duration analysis is based on the population of 443,533 patent applications filed at the SIPO between 1990 and 2002. The average grant lag is 4.71 years with considerable variation across 30 different technology areas. Interestingly, we find that Chinese applicants are able to achieve faster patent grants than their non-Chinese counterparts (even after controlling for various other determinants of grant lags). This might be an indication of a differential treatment of Chinese applicants which would be in violation of Art. 3 (National Treatment) and Art. 4 (Most-favored Nation Treatment) of TRIPS that has been signed by China in 2001.
Seiten
39
ISSN (Print)
1866–3494
Working Paper
CEPR Discussion Paper No. 6900
Published in
Georg von Graevenitz, Stefan Wagner, Dietmar Harhoff (2008)
Subject(s)
Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
patenting, patent thickets, patent portfolio races, complexity, technological opportunities
JEL Code(s)
L13, L20, O34
Published in
Seiten
37