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Publications
Journal Article
Journal of Applied Psychology
Julija N. Mell, Eric Quintane, Giles Hirst, Andrew Carnegie
Subject(s)
Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s)
Boundary spanning, supervisor undermining, territoriality, advice seeking

JEL Code(s)
M12
Journal Article
Organizational Research Methods
Eric Quintane, Martin Wood, John Dunn, Lucia Falzon
Subject(s)
Management sciences, decision sciences and quantitative methods
Keyword(s)
Brokering process, behavioral measure, relational events sequences, network algebra
Extant research in organizational networks has provided critical insights into understanding the benefits of occupying a brokerage position. More recently, researchers have moved beyond the brokerage position to consider the brokering processes (arbitration and collaboration) brokers engage in and their implications for performance. However, brokering processes are typically measured using scales that reflect individuals’ orientation toward engaging in a behavior, rather than the behavior itself. In this article, we propose a measure that captures the behavioral process of brokering. The measure indicates the extent to which actors engage in arbitration versus collaboration based on sequences of time stamped relational events, such as emails, message boards, and recordings of meetings. We demonstrate the validity of our measure as well as its predictive ability. By leveraging the temporal information inherent in sequences of relational events, our behavioral measure of brokering creates opportunities for researchers to explore the dynamics of brokerage and their impact on individuals, and also paves the way for a systematic examination of the temporal dynamics of networks.
With permission of SAGE Publishing
Journal Article
Organizational Research Methods 24 (4): 802–829
Aaron Schecter, Eric Quintane (2021)
Subject(s)
Management sciences, decision sciences and quantitative methods
Keyword(s)
Social network analysis, network dynamics, Relational Events Model
The Relational Event Model (REM) solves a problem for organizational researchers who have access to sequences of time stamped interactions. It enables them to estimate statistical models without collapsing the data into cross-sectional panels, which removes timing and sequence information. However, there is little guidance in the extant literature regarding issues that may affect REM’s power, precision and accuracy: How many events or actors are needed? How large should the risk set be? How should statistics be scaled? To gain insights into these issues, we conduct a series of experiments using simulated sequences of relational events under different conditions and using different sampling and scaling strategies. We also provide an empirical example using email communications in a real-life context. Our results indicate that, in most cases, the power and precision levels of REMs are good, making it a strong explanatory model. However, REM suffers from issues of accuracy that can be severe in certain cases, making it a poor predictive model. We provide a set of practical recommendations to guide researcher’s use of REMs in organizational research.
With permission of SAGE Publishing
Volume
24
Journal Pages
802–829
Journal Article
Connections 38 (1): 1–11
Stephen P. Borgatti, Eric Quintane (2019)
Subject(s)
Management sciences, decision sciences and quantitative methods
Keyword(s)
Social network analysis, techniques, dichotomization
There are many reasons to dichotomize valued network data. It might be for methodological reasons, for example, in order to use a graph-theoretic concept such as a clique or an n-clan, or to use methods such as ERGMs or SAOMs, which largely assume binary data. There is also the matter of visualizing networks, where fewer ties often yield a considerably more readable picture. It could also be for theoretical reasons. For example, in order to distinguish between positive and negative ties, since tie strength or valence are often captured using a single scale, which then needs to be dichotomized in order to match the theory. Finally, we might be engaging in a certain kind of data smoothing: we’ve collected data at fine levels of differences in strength of tie, but are not confident that small differences are meaningful. We have greater confidence in a few big buckets such as strong and weak than in 100 graduations of strength.
Whatever the reason, if we are going dichotomize, the question is at what level should we dichotomize? In some cases, the situation is guided by theoretical meaningfulness and the research design. For example, suppose respondents are asked to rate others on a scale of 1=don’t know them, 2=acquaintance, 3=friend and 4 = family. We see there is a loose gradation from “doesn’t know” to “knows well”, but really categories 3 and 4 are not so much degrees of closeness as different kinds of social relations. Which to use is determined by the research question. A similar example is provided by questions that ask for range of affect from negative to positive. If respondents are asked to rate others on a scale of 1=dislike a lot, 2=dislike somewhat, 3=neither like nor dislike, 4=like somewhat and 5=like a lot, for many analyses it will make sense to choose a cut off of > 3 or > 4 for positive ties and a priori way of deciding where to dichotomize.
Here we propose a two-step approach to dichotomizing. Step 1 is to simply dichotomize at every level (or a collection of k bins) and examine the network produced at each level. Step 2 is to use simple analytics in order to obtain an informed rationale for a specific dichotomization threshold that makes sense for a given dataset.
Volume
38
Journal Pages
1–11
Journal Article
Social Networks 55: 104–115
Matthew E. Brashears, Eric Quintane (2018)
Subject(s)
Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s)
Bandwidth, tie strength, simulation, email data, theory
The relationship between network structure and access to novel information has fascinated social scientists for decades, culminating in the recent identification of the bandwidth-diversity tradeoff. Yet, existing work focuses on a unidimensional conception of network ties that leaves many important sources of novel information unexplored. We unpack bandwidth, identifying three factors that govern the transmission behavior of network ties: capacity (the ability of a tie to transmit content), frequency (the average time between tie activations), and redundancy (the extent to which a tie reaches persons who are connected to each other). Empirical analyses and simulation models reveal new types of ties, as well as the conventional variety, that open promising research avenues.
Volume
55
Journal Pages
104–115
Journal Article
Social Networks 54: 168–178
Lucia Falzon, Eric Quintane, John Dunn, Garry Robins (2018)
Subject(s)
Management sciences, decision sciences and quantitative methods
Keyword(s)
Time ordered social interactions, temporal centrality measures, network algebra
Digital data enable researchers to obtain fine-grained temporal information about social interactions. However, positional measures used in social network analysis (e.g., degree centrality, reachability, betweenness) are not well suited to these time-stamped interaction data because they ignore sequence and time of interactions. While new temporal measures have been developed, they consider time and sequence separately. Building on formal algebra, we propose three temporal equivalents to positional network measures that incorporate time and sequence. We demonstrate how these temporal equivalents can be applied to an empirical context and compare the results with their static counterparts. We show that, compared to their temporal counterparts, static measures applied to interaction networks obscure meaningful differences in the way in which individuals accumulate alters over time, conceal potential disconnections in the network by overestimating reachability, and bias the distribution of betweenness centrality, which can affect the identification of key individuals in the network.
Volume
54
Journal Pages
168–178
Journal Article
PLoS ONE 13 (3): e0193966
Claudia P. Estévez-Mujica, Eric Quintane (2018)
Subject(s)
Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s)
Email communication patterns, burnout, predictive modeling
A considerable body of research has documented the negative effects of job burnout on employees and their organizations, emphasizing the importance of the identification of early signs of the phenomenon for the purposes of prevention and intervention. However, such timely identification is difficult due to the time and cost of assessing the burnout levels of all employees in an organization using established scales. In this paper, we propose an innovative way to identify employees at risk of job burnout by analyzing their e-mail communication patterns. Building on the Job Demands–Resources model, we theorize about the relationship between e-mail communication patterns and levels of employee exhaustion and disengagement (two dimensions of burnout). We analyzed 52,190 e-mails exchanged between 57 employees of a medium sized R&D company over a five-month period. We then related these employees’ communication patterns to their levels of burnout, collected using an established scale (the OLBI–Oldenburg Burnout Inventory). Our results provide support for the overall proposition of the paper, that e-mail communications can be used to identify individuals at risk of job burnout. Our models explain up to 34% of the variance of burnout and up to 37% and 19% respectively of the variance of exhaustion and disengagement. They also successfully distinguish between employees with a higher risk of burnout and those with lower levels of risk (F1 score of 84% with recall of 100% and 73% precision). We discuss the implications of our results and present suggestions for future research.
Volume
13
Journal Pages
e0193966
ISSN (Online)
1932-6203
Journal Article
American Journal of Sociology 123 (3): 850–910
James A. Kitts, Alessandro Lomi, Daniele Mascia, Francesca Pallotti, Eric Quintane (2017)
Subject(s)
Health and environment
Keyword(s)
Interorganizational exchange, hospitals, patient transfers, reciprocity
Previous research on interaction behavior among organizations (resource exchange, collaboration, communication) has typically aggregated those behaviors over time as a network of organizational relationships. The authors instead study structural-temporal patterns in organizational exchange, focusing on the dynamics of reciprocation. Applying this lens to a community of Italian hospitals during 2003–7, the authors observe two mechanisms of interorganizational reciprocation: organizational embedding and resource dependence. The authors show how these two mechanisms operate on distinct time horizons: dependence applies to contemporaneous exchange structures, whereas embedding develops through longer-term historical patterns. They also show how these processes operate differently in competitive and noncompetitive contexts, operationalized in terms of market differentiation and geographic space. In noncompetitive contexts, the authors observe both logics of reciprocation, dependence in the short term and embedding over the long term, developing into population-level generalized exchange. In competitive contexts, they find no reciprocation and instead observe the microfoundations of status hierarchies.
Volume
123
Journal Pages
850–910
Journal Article
Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal 11 (1): 1–17
Yulia Snihur, B. Sebastian Reiche, Eric Quintane (2017)
Subject(s)
Entrepreneurship; Strategy and general management
Keyword(s)
Opportunity development, sustaining actor engagement, translation, transformation, process model, temporal capabilities
Recent entrepreneurship research has examined how opportunities are developed, highlighting the engagement of external actors. However, we know little about how entrepreneurs should interact with external actors to sustain their engagement. Since opportunity development is a process that unfolds over time, sustaining actor engagement is critical because it enables continued feedback and access to actors’ resources. We present a process model that explains how entrepreneurs can sustain external actor engagement through two iterative phases: translation and transformation. We also propose that entrepreneurs can sustain actor engagement by structuring the timing of interactions and by modifying actors’ perceptions of the time available for novel opportunity development. We conclude with an agenda for future research on actor engagement and entrepreneurs’ temporal capabilities.
Copyright © 2016 Strategic Management Society
Volume
11
Journal Pages
1–17
Journal Article
Social Networks 48: 10–22
Emmanuel Lazega, Eric Quintane, Sandrine Casenaz (2017)
Subject(s)
Economics, politics and business environment
Keyword(s)
Relational infrastructures, institutional entrepreneurs, collegial oligarchy, normative alignments, European Unified Patent Court
This paper presents a combined relational and cultural approach to transnational institution building by focusing on a network analysis of a small collegial oligarchy and normative alignments among its peers. To contribute to a theory of institutionalization, we propose hypotheses about whom professionals as institutional entrepreneurs are likely to select as members of their collegial oligarchy, about the role of social networks among them in identifying these leaders, and about the costs of alignments on these leaders’ normative choices. We test these hypotheses using mainly Exponential Random Graph Models (ERGMs) applied to a dataset including network information and normative choices collected at the so-called Venice Forum – a field-configuring event that was central in creating and mobilizing a network of European patent judges for the construction of a new transnational institution, the European Unified Patent Court. We track normative alignments on the collegial hierarchy in this network of judges and their divergent interpretations of the contemporary European patent. Highlighting this under-examined articulation of relational infrastructures and cultural framing in transnational institutionalization shows how Northern European forms of capitalism tend to dominate in this institutionalization process at the expense of the Southern European forms. It also helps reflect on the usefulness of analyses of small networks of powerful players in organizational societies, where power and influence are highly concentrated.
© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Volume
48
Journal Pages
10–22
Subject(s)
Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s)
Brokerage process, unembedded interactions, tertius gaudens and tertius iungens, relational event model
Organizational network research has demonstrated that multiple benefits accrue to people occupying brokerage positions. However, the extant literature offers scant evidence of the process postulated to drive such benefits (information brokerage) and therefore leaves unaddressed the question of how brokers broker. We address this gap by examining the information-brokerage interactions in which actors engage. We argue that the information-brokerage strategies of brokers differ in three critical ways from those of actors embedded in denser network positions. First, brokers more often broker information via short-term interactions with colleagues outside their network of long-term relationships, a process we label “unembedded brokerage.” Second, when they engage in unembedded brokerage, brokers are more likely than are actors in dense network positions to intermediate the flow of information between the brokered parties, consistent with a tertius gaudens strategy. Conversely, and third, when they broker information via their network of long-term ties (embedded brokerage), brokers are more likely than are densely connected actors to facilitate a direct information exchange between the brokered parties, consistent with a tertius iungens strategy. Using a relational event model, we find support for our arguments in an empirical analysis of email communications among employees in a medium-sized, knowledge-intensive organization, as well as in a replication study. The theory and evidence we present advance a novel, temporal perspective on how brokers broker, which reconciles structural and process views of network brokerage. Our findings substantiate the notion of brokers as a dynamic force driving change in organizational networks, and they help to integrate within a unitary explanatory framework tertius iungens and tertius gaudens views of brokerage.
© 2016, INFORMS
Volume
27
Journal Pages
1343–1360
Journal Article
Social Networks 44: 74–84
Matthew E. Brashears, Emily Hoagland, Eric Quintane (2016)
Subject(s)
Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s)
Sex, situational cognition, compression heuristics, personality, memory
How does an individual's sex influence their recall of social relations? Extensive research has shown that social networks differ by sex and has attempted to explain these differences either through structural availability or individual preferences. Addressing the limitations of these explanations, we build on an increasing body of research emphasizing the role of cognition in the formation and maintenance of networks to argue that males and females may exhibit different strategies for encoding and recalling social information in memory. Further, because activating sex roles can alter cognitive performance, we propose that differences in recall may only or primarily appear when respondents are made aware of their sex. We explore differences in male and female network memory using a laboratory experiment asking respondents to memorize and recall a novel social network after receiving either a sex prime or a control prime. We find that sex significantly impacts social network recall, however being made aware of one's sex does not. Our results provide evidence that differences in male and female networks may be partly due to sex-based differences in network cognition.
Volume
44
Journal Pages
74–84
Journal Article
Social Networks 41: 113–126
Matthew E. Brashears, Eric Quintane (2015)
Subject(s)
Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s)
Memory, cognition, experiment, social brain hypothesis, ERGM
A growing number of studies indicate that aspects of psychology and cognition influence network structure, but much remains to be learned about how network information is stored and retrieved from memory. Are networks recalled as dyads, as triads, or more generally as sub-groups? We employ an experimental design coupled with exponential random graph models to address this issue. We find that respondents flexibly encode social information as triads or groups, depending on the network, but not as dyads. This supports prior research showing that networks are stored using “compression heuristics”, but also provides evidence of cognitive flexibility in the process of encoding relational information.
Volume
41
Journal Pages
113–126
Journal Article
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 69 (5): 841–855
K. P. Patison, Eric Quintane, D. L. Swain, Garry Robins, P. Pattison (2015)
Subject(s)
Management sciences, decision sciences and quantitative methods
Keyword(s)
Animal social networks, temporal data, social association, social structure, triad, event probability
Volume
69
Journal Pages
841–855
ISSN (Online)
1432-0762
ISSN (Print)
0340-5443
Journal Article
Journal of Applied Psychology 100 (2): 567–574
Giles Hirst, Daan Van Knippenberg, Jing Zhou, Eric Quintane, Cherrie Zhu (2015)
Subject(s)
Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s)
Creativity, indirect ties
Volume
100
Journal Pages
567–574
Journal Article
Organizational Research Methods 17 (1): 23–50
Eric Quintane, Guido Conaldi, Marco Tonellato, Alessandro Lomi (2014)
Subject(s)
Management sciences, decision sciences and quantitative methods
Keyword(s)
Relational event models, temporal dependence, two-mode networks, free/open source software
Sequences of relational events underlie much empirical research on organizational relations. Yet relational event data are typically aggregated and dichotomized to derive networks that can be analyzed with specialized statistical methods. Transforming sequences of relational events into binary network ties entails two main limitations: the loss of information about the order and number of events that compose each tie and the inability to account for compositional changes in the set of actors and/or recipients. In this article, we introduce a newly developed class of statistical models that enables researchers to exploit the full information contained in sequences of relational events. We propose an extension of the models to cater for sequences of relational events linking different sets of actors. We illustrate the empirical application of relational event models in the context of a free/open source software project with the aim to explain the level of effort produced by contributors to the project. We offer guidance in the interpretation of model parameters by characterizing the social processes underlying organizational problem solving. We discuss the applicability of relational events models in organizational research.
With permission of SAGE Publishing
Volume
17
Journal Pages
23–50
Journal Article
Social Networks 35 (4): 528–540
Eric Quintane, Philippa E. Pattison, Garry L. Robins, Joeri M. Mol (2013)
Subject(s)
Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s)
Time frames, stability, teams, relational events
Network research focuses on patterns of stable relationships, where stability represents the unfolding of social processes over long time frames. We argue that social interactions exhibit important regularities in different time frames (short and long term), reflecting distinct social processes. We illustrate the value of this distinction through a comparative case study of technology-mediated communication, within two project teams in a digital marketing agency. We examine how the embedding of interpersonal interactions in processes of reciprocity and closure over different time horizons enables the emergence of cohesion in the face of constant compositional changes. We propose that the time frames in which stable patterns of interactions develop are the key to understanding the nature of the underlying social processes with short-term patterns of closure and reciprocity representing adaptation to change while longer term patterns indicate cohesion. Our results are supportive of this argument and show that the two teams exhibit the same regularities in interactions but across different time horizons. We discuss the implication of our findings and argue that distinguishing between short- and long-term stability of social networks offers a novel and promising avenue for network research.
Volume
35
Journal Pages
528–540
Journal Article
Journal of Knowledge Management 15 (6): 928–947
Eric Quintane, Mitch R. Casselman, Sebastian B. Reiche, Petra A. Nylund (2011)
Subject(s)
Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s)
Innovation, knowledge, process, outcome, definition, knowledge management

  • Purpose
    – The purpose of this paper is to provide clarity to the concept of innovation and its various definitions.

  • Design/methodology/approach
    – The article reviews the innovation literature and proposes that innovation has been conceptualized either from a process or from an outcome perspective. Also, the authors show that there is a substantive difference between innovation seen in the traditional innovation literature and innovation as conceived in the knowledge management literature.

  • Findings
    – The paper proposes a general framework to categorize the existing views of innovation and show that innovation as an outcome has not been clearly defined from a knowledge perspective. To address this gap, the authors develop a new definition of an innovation outcome based on knowledge elements.

  • Research limitations/implications
    – The research lays the groundwork for more comprehensive methods of measuring innovation and innovativeness, which is particularly useful for the study of service innovation.

  • Practical implications
    – The framework and definition expand the ability of managers to measure and understand the key factors of innovation.

  • Originality/value
    – The research contributes to the literature by developing a comprehensive knowledge‐based, outcome‐oriented definition of innovation.

Volume
15
Journal Pages
928–947