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Publications
Journal Article
Review of Economics and Statistics
Fabian Gaessler, Stefan Wagner
Subject(s)
Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
patents, drugs, data exclusivity, clinical trials
JEL Code(s)
K41, L24, L65, O31, O32, O34
Journal Article
Academy of Management Journal 61 (6): 2026–2052
2018 VHB Jürgen Hauschildt Award 2018 For the best empirical research publication in Innovation Management
Stefan Wagner, Martin C. Goossen (2018)
Subject(s)
Strategy and general management; Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
Inventor mobility, alliance formation, interfirm collaboration, technological capabilities, pharmaceuticals
We link the hiring of R&D scientists from industry competitors to the subsequent formation of collaborative agreements, namely technology-oriented alliances. By transferring technological knowledge as well as cognitive elements to the hiring firm, mobile inventors foster the alignment of decision frames applied by potential alliance partners in the process of alliance formation thereby making collaboration more likely. Using data on inventor mobility and alliance formation amongst 42 global pharmaceutical firms over 16 years, we show that inventor mobility is positively associated with the likelihood of alliance formation in periods following inventor movements. This relationship becomes more pronounced if these employees bring additional knowledge about their prior firm’s technological capabilities and for alliances aimed at technology development rather than for agreements related to technology transfer. It is weakened, however, if the focal firm is already familiar with the competitor’s technological capabilities. By revealing these relationships, our study contributes to research on alliance formation, employee mobility, and organizational frames.
With permission of the Academy of Management
Volume
61
Journal Pages
2026–2052
Journal Article
Management Science 62 (3): 704–721
An abridged version of this article was previously published in the AOM Best Paper Proceedings
2015 Darmstadt Innovation Research Best Paper Award
Dietmar Harhoff, Georg von Graevenitz, Stefan Wagner (2016)
Subject(s)
Entrepreneurship
Keyword(s)
Microeconomic behavior, industrial organization, firm objectives, organization and behavior, market structure, firm strategy, market performance, patent system, patent litigation
JEL Code(s)
K11, K41, O34
Postgrant validity challenges at patent offices rely on the private initiative of third parties to correct mistakes made by patent offices. We hypothesize that incentives to bring postgrant validity challenges are reduced when many firms benefit from revocation of a patent and when firms are caught up in patent thickets. Using data on opposition to patents at the European Patent Office we show that opposition decreases in fields in which many others profit from patent revocations. Moreover, in fields with a large number of mutually blocking patents, the incidence of opposition is sharply reduced, particularly among large firms and firms that are caught up directly in patent thickets. These findings indicate that postgrant patent review may not constitute an effective correction device for erroneous patent grants in technologies affected by either patent thickets or highly dispersed patent ownership.
© 2016 INFORMS
Volume
62
Journal Pages
704–721
Subject(s)
Entrepreneurship; Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
Patent indicators, patent system, product commercialization, pharmaceutical industry, drug development
Patent-based measures are frequently used as indicators in empirical research on innovation and technological change. Currently, there is little evidence as to what extent patent-based indicators relate to product market outcomes. Using a unique dataset that links outcomes from product commercialization in the pharmaceutical industry with detailed patent data, we relate patent-based indicators that capture either an invention’s value or the uncertainty surrounding the patenting process to the outcomes of the product development process. Our findings suggest that the speed of commercialization increases with value but reduces with uncertainty. Using a variety of alternative indicators we derive implications for the use and the proper interpretation of individual measures. Moreover, our study has broader implications as it highlights the detrimental effect of uncertainty on the speed of innovation.
With permission of Elsevier
Volume
45
Journal Pages
1091–1102
Journal Article
Strategic Management Journal 35 (11): 1671–1688
2015 VHB Best Paper Award (Nominated)
Stefan Wagner, Karin Hoisl, Grid Thoma (2014)
Subject(s)
Information technology and systems; Technology, R&D management
The literature on organizational learning asserts that external learning is often limited geographically and technologically. We scrutinize to what extent organizations acquire external knowledge by accessing external knowledge repositories. We argue that professional service firms (PSFs) grant access to non-localized knowledge repositories and thereby not only facilitate external learning but also help to overcome localization. Focusing on patent law firms, we test our predictions using a unique dataset of 544,820 pairs of EP patent applications. Analyzing patterns of knowledge flows captured in patent citations we find that accessing a PSF’s repository facilitates the acquisition of external knowledge. As the effect is more pronounced for knowledge that is distant to a focal organization we conclude that having access to a knowledge repository compensates for localization disadvantages.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Volume
35
Journal Pages
1671–1688
Journal Article
The Journal of Industrial Economics 61 (3): 521–563
Georg von Graevenitz, Stefan Wagner, Dietmar Harhoff (2013)
Subject(s)
Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
patenting, patent thickets, patent portfolio races, complexity, technological opportunities
JEL Code(s)
L13, L20, O34
We analyze incidence and evolution of patent thickets. The paper provides a modeling framework showing how competition for patent portfolios, complementarity of patented technologies and hold-up affect patenting. Predictions are that technological opportunity reduces patenting in complex technologies, while increasing patenting in discrete technologies. Competition has the opposite effects. The predictions are tested using European patent data in a panel with 2,074 patenting firms in thirty technology areas over fifteen years. A new measure of technological complexity is applied. GMM estimation results confirm the predictions of our preferred model. Patent thickets are found in nine out of thirty technology areas.
© 2013 The Editorial Board of The Journal of Industrial Economics and John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Volume
61
Journal Pages
521–563
Journal Article
Research Policy 42 (2): 552–563
Johannes Liegsalz, Stefan Wagner (2013)
Subject(s)
Economics, politics and business environment; Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
patent system, patent examination, State Intellectual Property Office China, duration analysis
The number of patent applications filed at the Chinese State Intellectual Property Office SIPO grew tremendously over the last decades and the SIPO has become the world's third largest patent office by 2009. In this paper, we provide an overview of the institutional background of patent examination in China. Moreover, we empirically analyze the determinants of the grant lags applicants have to expect at the SIPO. The multivariate duration analysis is based on the population of 443,533 patent applications filed at the SIPO between 1990 and 2002. The average grant lag is 4.71 years with considerable variation across 30 different technology areas. Interestingly, we find that Chinese applicants are able to achieve faster patent grants than their non-Chinese counterparts (even after controlling for various other determinants of grant lags). This might be an indication of a differential treatment of Chinese applicants which would be in violation of Art. 3 (National Treatment) and Art. 4 (Most-favored Nation Treatment) of TRIPS that has been signed by China in 2001.
With permission of Elsevier
Volume
42
Journal Pages
552–563
Journal Article
Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik (Journal of Economics and Statistics) 232 (3): 258–278
Bernd Süssmuth, Stefan Wagner (2012)
Subject(s)
Economics, politics and business environment
Keyword(s)
Incentives, structural change, moral hazard, professional sports
JEL Code(s)
D82, J41, L14, M52
Volume
232
Journal Pages
258–278
ISSN (Online)
2366-049X
ISSN (Print)
0021–4027
Journal Article
Economics Letters 111 (1): 6–9
Georg von Graevenitz, Dietmar Harhoff, Stefan Wagner (2011)
Subject(s)
Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
patenting, patent thickets, patent portfolio races, complexity
JEL Code(s)
L13, L20, O34
The existing literature identifies patent thickets indirectly. In this paper we propose a novel measure based on patent citations which allows us to measure the density of patent thickets directly. We discuss the algorithm which generates the measure and present descriptive results validating it. Moreover, we identify technology areas which are particularly impacted by patent thickets.
With permission of Elsevier
Volume
111
Journal Pages
6–9
Journal Article
Strategic Management Journal 31 (11): 1183–1201
Markus Reitzig, Stefan Wagner (2010)
Subject(s)
Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
knowledge-based view, patents, outsourcing
Drawing on patent data for approximately 500 firms over 20 years, we advance recent theory on firm boundaries and test these propositions for the first time. We first provide evidence for the existence of knowledge complementarities between vertically related activities in a firm's value chain by showing that firms face increasing (decreasing) performance in conducting downstream activities (i.e., patent litigation) the less (more) they outsource related upstream activities (i.e., patent filing). We then propose and empirically demonstrate that vertical integration benefits through learning differ from vertical outsourcing costs through forgetting. We show that firms can partly offset these hidden outsourcing costs by sourcing similar upstream products from internal and external suppliers.
© 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Volume
31
Journal Pages
1183–1201
Journal Article
Managerial and Decision Economics 31 (6): 415–430
Subject(s)
Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
management turn-over, managerial succession, treatment regression, soccer
JEL Code(s)
J44, J63, M59, Z00
It has been widely studied how organizational performance changes after the replacement of managers. However, there is little evidence whether environmental changes moderate the efficiency of management replacements. In this paper, I explicitly consider the effect of a change in the environment of organizations on post-replacement effects. Analyzing the performance effect of coach replacements in the German Soccer League before and after the introduction of the 3-points-rule theoretically and empirically I find that the magnitude of the performance effect of coach replacements differs under alternative regimes. The empirical analysis confirms predictions from my theoretical model and identifies moderating effects.
© 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Volume
31
Journal Pages
415–430
Journal Article
Research Policy 39 (2): 214–228
Stefan Wagner, Iain M. Cockburn (2010)
Subject(s)
Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
business method patent, firm survival, high tech start-ups
We examine the effect of patenting on the survival prospects of 356 Internet-related firms that made an initial public offering on the NASDAQ at the height of the stock market bubble of the late 1990s. By March 2005, almost 2/3 of these firms had delisted from the exchange. Changes in the legal environment in the US in the 1990s made it much easier to obtain patents on software, and ultimately, on business methods, though less than 1/2 of the firms in our sample obtained, or attempted to obtain, patents. For those that did, we hypothesize that patents conferred competitive advantages that translate into higher probability of survival, though they may also simply be a signal of firm quality. Controlling for other determinants of firm survival, patenting is positively associated with survival. Quite different processes appear to govern exit via acquisition compared to exit via delisting from the exchange due to business failure. Firms that applied for more patents were less likely to be acquired, though if they obtain unusually highly cited patents they may be a more attractive acquisition target. These findings do generally not hold true for "business method" patents, which do not appear to confer a survival advantage.
With permission of Elsevier
Volume
39
Journal Pages
214–228
Journal Article
Business Strategy Review 21 (1): 28–33
Markus Reitzig, Stefan Wagner (2010)
Subject(s)
Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
knowledge-based view, patents
After developing a great product or process, it's important to protect it. Markus Reitzig and Stefan Wagner have done extensive research on the benefits of using internal patent lawyers versus outsourcing the task. Here's the inside story.
With permission of Wiley
Volume
21
Journal Pages
28–33
Subject(s)
Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
contingent valuation, copyright, teaching and research
JEL Code(s)
K39
Volume
61
Journal Pages
857–880
ISSN (Online)
2366–6153
ISSN (Print)
0341–2687
Journal Article
Management Science 55 (12): 1969–1984
Dietmar Harhoff, Stefan Wagner (2009)
Subject(s)
Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
patents, patent examination, survival analysis, patent citations, European Patent Office
We analyze the duration and outcomes of patent examination at the European Patent Office utilizing an unusually rich data set covering a random sample of 215,265 applications filed between 1982 and 1998. In our empirical analysis, we distinguish between three groups of determinants: applicant characteristics, indicators of patent quality and value, and determinants that affect the complexity of the examination task. The results from an accelerated failure time model indicate that more controversial claims lead to slower grants but faster withdrawals, whereas well-documented applications are approved faster and withdrawn more slowly. We find strong evidence that applicants accelerate grant proceedings for their most valuable patents, but that they also prolong the battle for such patents if a withdrawal or refusal is imminent. This paper develops implications of these results for managerial decision making in research and development and innovation management.
© 2009 INFORMS
Volume
55
Journal Pages
1969–1984
Journal Article
Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 42: 1–10
Rebecca Ermecke, Philip Mayrhofer, Stefan Wagner (2009)
Volume
42
Journal Pages
1–10
Journal Article
Quarterly Journal of Economic Research (Vierteljahreshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung) 78 (1): 156–166
Subject(s)
Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
Business method patents, financial industry, financial innovation, European Patent Office
JEL Code(s)
O31, O34, G20
Volume
78
Journal Pages
156–166
Journal Article
International Journal of Innovation Management 12 (3): 399–418
Celine Schulz, Stefan Wagner (2008)
Subject(s)
Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
outlaw community innovation, video game consoles, homebrew software
Volume
12
Journal Pages
399–418
Journal Article
Economics of Innovation and New Technology 17 (3): 173–194
Subject(s)
Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
business method patents, patent opposition, EPO, franking device manufacturers
JEL Code(s)
L69, O34
Volume
17
Journal Pages
173–194
Journal Article
Zeitschrift für Betriebswirtschaft Special Issue (4): 47–68
Subject(s)
Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
knowledge-based view, transaction cost economics, patents, outsourcing
JEL Code(s)
L22, L84, M55
Volume
Special Issue
Journal Pages
47–68
Journal Article
Statistical Modelling 7 (2): 125–153
Claudia Czado, Vinzenz Erhardt, Aleksey Min, Stefan Wagner (2007)
Subject(s)
Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
maximum likelihood estimator; overdispersion; patent outsourcing; Vuong test; zero-inflated generalized Poisson regression; zero-inflation
This paper focuses on an extension of zero-inflated generalized Poisson (ZIGP) regression models for count data. We discuss generalized Poisson (GP) models where dispersion is modelled by an additional model parameter. Moreover, zero-inflated models, in which overdispersion is assumed to be caused by an excessive number of zeros, are discussed. In addition to ZIGP models considered by several authors, we now allow for regression on the overdispersion and zero-inflation parameters. Consequently, we propose tools for an exploratory data analysis on the dispersion and zero-inflation level. An application dealing with outsourcing of patent filing processes will be used to compare these nonnested models. The model parameters are fitted by maximum likelihood using our R package 'ZIGP' available on the Comprehensive RArchive Network (CRAN). Asymptotic normality of the Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimates in this non-exponential setting is proven. Standard errors are estimated using the asymptotic normality of the estimates. Appropriate exploratory data analysis tools are developed. Also, a model comparison using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) statistics and Vuong tests is carried out. For the given data, our extended ZIGP regression model will prove to be superior over GP and zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) models, and even over ZIGP models, with constant overall dispersion and zero-inflation parameters demonstrating the usefulness of our proposed extensions.
With permission of SAGE Publishing
Volume
7
Journal Pages
125–153
Journal Article
Quarterly Journal of Economic Research (Vierteljahreshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung) 75 (4): 93–108
Philipp Jostarndt, Stefan Wagner (2006)
Subject(s)
Finance, accounting and corporate governance
Keyword(s)
capital structure, international comparison, debt ratio
Volume
75
Journal Pages
93–108
Journal Article
Empirical Economics 31 (2): 513–533
Alexander Jerak, Stefan Wagner (2006)
Subject(s)
Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
Markov Chain Monte Carlo, Bayesian semiparametric binary regression, Bayesian P-splines, patent opposition
Volume
31
Journal Pages
513–533
ISSN (Online)
1435-8921
ISSN (Print)
0377-7332
Journal Article
Quarterly Journal of Economic Research (Vierteljahreshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung) 74 (4): 125–139
Felix Treptow, Stefan Wagner (2005)
Subject(s)
Finance, accounting and corporate governance
Keyword(s)
demutalization, stock exchanges, listing conditions
Volume
74
Journal Pages
125–139