Technology, R&D management
Appropriability, complementary assets, openness, innovation, open innovation, review, content analysis
This paper sheds fresh light on our 2010 paper How Open Is Innovation by taking into consideration notable developments in innovation over the last decade. The original paper developed four types of openness: sourcing, acquiring, selling, and revealing. Reflecting on important technological, organizational, and societal changes in the past decade, we highlight how these changes prompt novel questions for open innovation. While the core features of the original framework still stands, there are many new questions that have emerged in recent years. We end by chartering a path for future research that emphasizes opportunities, costs and tradeoffs between different modes of open innovation, the need to better understand the nature of data, new organizational designs and legal instruments, and multilevel aspects and relationships that affect the extent and nature of openness.
With permission of Elsevier