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Journal Article
Management Science
Chengwei Liu, Jerker Denrell, David Maslach
Subject(s)
Diversity and inclusion; Management sciences, decision sciences and quantitative methods; Strategy and general management
Keyword(s)
Matthew effect, performance evaluation, luck, organizational learning
Success tends to increase and failure tends to decrease the chances of future success. We show that this impact of past outcomes can change how diagnostic success or failure are regarding the competence of an individual or a firm. Succeeding under adverse circumstances is especially impressive when initial failure reduces the chances of success more for low-quality agents than for high-quality agents. Succeeding after initial failure (being a ”successful underdog”) can also indicate higher expected quality than succeeding twice if initial success increases the chances of success of all agents to a high level. In different circumstances, the outcome after success can be especially informative about quality, implying that failing after an initial success (a ”one-hit wonder”) indicates lower quality than failing twice does. We find effects consistent with our model in data on Canadian professional hockey players and on data from the Music Lab experiment: initial failure combined with eventual success is associated with high quality. The results help to clarify when failure should be attributed to the person in charge or to the situation, when underdogs and individuals who overcome adversity are especially impressive, and when a na¨ıve ”more is better” heuristic for evaluating performance can be misleading.

© 2022, INFORMS
Subject(s)
Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s)
methods, measures, research transparency, open science,reproducibility, meta-science, negotiation,conflict, cooperation, competition
Conflict management scholars study mixed-motive negotiation situations with cooperative and competitive incentives predominantly through multi-issue negotiation tasks in experimental studies. Intriguingly, experimenters currently lack an objective, generalizable, and continuous measure that precisely quantifies the incentives underlying these negotiation tasks. We present the conflict strength coefficient, which enables scholars to systematically quantify the incentive structures in these multi-issue negotiation tasks. By making the incentive structures accessible and numerically comparable, the conflict strength coefficient provides new insights into the central element of the experimental study of negotiation and conflict management, unmasks differences across existing tasks, facilitates research transparency, knowledge sharing, and open science practices. We demonstrate the coefficient’s benefits by providing a hands-on example from past research, by reviewing and quantitatively assessing the current literature, and by mapping conflict strength coefficients for the negotiation and conflict management research landscape and its subareas. Our analysis suggests that the conflict strength coefficient can enrich the understanding of cooperative and competitive incentives in the established tasks and directly guide and support an individual scholar’s process of knowledge creation. The conflict strength coefficient provides a methodological contribution to the experimental study of conflict management and negotiation with immediate benefits for the production of scientific knowledge, the experimental study of real-world phenomena, and theory development.
Subject(s)
Strategy and general management
ISSN (Online)
2245-408X
Journal Article
Social Networks
Lanu Kim, Daniel A. MacFarland, Sanne Smith, Linus Dahlander
Subject(s)
Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s)
network ecology; networking styles; academic collaboration; multiplex networks; sociology of knowledge
Journal Article
Contemporary Accounting Research
Scott Dyreng, Xu Jiang, Martin Jacob, Maximilian A. Müller
Subject(s)
Finance, accounting and corporate governance
Keyword(s)
Tax avoidance, tax burden, tax incidence
JEL Code(s)
H20, H25
ISSN (Online)
1911-3846
ISSN (Print)
0823-9150
Subject(s)
Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s)
error, error management, failure, psychological safety, organizational learning
Even if we strive for an organizational learning culture that does not punish mistakes and failure, implementation is difficult. Especially when damage has been done, people are quick to talk about "culprits" and "sanctions," but this benefits no one. Analysis of the failure usually reveals that several factors played a role. Talking openly about this requires that the employees feel psychologically safe.
In aviation, openly dealing with mistakes is not only tolerated, but actively demanded. There, it is not the error that is the problem, but the unrecognized – or worse – the unreported error. This leads to the seemingly paradoxical result that, in the area of a high-risk organization of all places, the open, non-punitive handling of errors is the norm. The focus is on learning from mistakes in order to be able to avoid them henceforth. This principle should also apply to companies that want to reduce the errors that occur in their projects and processes.
Subject(s)
Management sciences, decision sciences and quantitative methods
Keyword(s)
congestion, diagnostic accuracy, experiments, partially observable markov decision process, path-dependent decision making, undertesting, task completion bias
To study the effect of congestion on the fundamental trade-off between diagnostic accuracy and speed, we empirically test the predictions of a formal sequential testing model in a setting where the gathering of additional information can improve diagnostic accuracy, but may also take time and increase congestion as a result. The efficient management of such systems requires a careful balance of congestion-sensitive stopping rules. These include diagnoses made based on very little or no diagnostic information, and the stopping of diagnostic processes while waiting for information. We test these rules under controlled laboratory conditions, and link the observed biases to system dynamics and performance. Our data shows that decision makers (DMs) stop diagnostic processes too quickly at low congestion levels where information acquisition is relatively cheap. But they fail to stop quickly enough when increasing congestion requires the DM to diagnose without testing, or diagnose while waiting for test results. Essentially, DMs are insufficiently sensitive to congestion. As a result of these behavioral patterns, DMs manage the system with both lower-than-optimal diagnostic accuracy and higher-than-optimal congestion cost, underperforming on both sides of the accuracy/speed trade-off.
Subject(s)
Human resources management/organizational behavior; Strategy and general management
Keyword(s)
office design, gender, networks, field experiment
In this paper, I investigate office spatial design as a managerial lever to shape employee networks, and its differential impact on male and female employees.
With permission of the Academy of Management
ISSN (Online)
2151-6561
ISSN (Print)
0065-0668
Subject(s)
Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s)
Cross-unit collaboration, lateral change, leading change from the middle, stakeholder management, power and politics in organizations, emotional intelligence, leading change as part of a digital transformation process, diversity

Lucia Fargolo is a dynamic high potential who joined FoodCo – a global fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) company at the beginning of their digital transformation journey. After a promotion to department head, Lucia is preparing the global Social Media Marketing strategy. The implementation should start be piloted with a few brands. While Lucia is planning for the launch of the pilot with the brand category managers, there is however a hiccup: one seasoned brand manager seems to be totally off-board with Lucia’s plan. He doesn’t even show up for the strategy workshop she organized. What should Lucia do now?
Journal Article
Journal of Financial Services Research
Alexei Alexandrov, Özlem Bedre-Defolie, Daniel Grodzicki
Subject(s)
Economics, politics and business environment
Keyword(s)
Credit card demand reactions to fees, late fee regulation, limited attention
We introduce a model of a rational credit card user's rather complex usage choices and develop an empirical framework to test its predictions. Employing a large national database of U.S. card accounts, we estimate how prices impact card usage and find that price effects are mostly well explained within our model. An exception is less borrowing in response to declining late-fees among low credit-score (subprime) users. Extension of our model based on "focusing theory" predicts this behavior. It also implies substantial indirect benefits of the CARD Act's late-fee cap due to subprime users re-focusing toward reducing their debt.