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Subject(s)
Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
R&D incentives, tax incentives, innovation, technology
This article provides a structured overview on the most important features of the new German legislation awarding tax breaks for R&D active companies.
ISSN (Print)
1868-2979
Journal Article
Research in the Sociology of Organizations
Matthew S. Bothner, Frederic C. Godart, Noah Askin, Wonjae Lee
Subject(s)
Human resources management/organizational behavior; Management sciences, decision sciences and quantitative methods; Strategy and general management
Keyword(s)
Sociology, status, cognate concepts
ISSN (Online)
978-1-78756-591-3
ISSN (Print)
978-1-78756-592-0
Subject(s)
Information technology and systems
Keyword(s)
Sovereignty, cyberspace, cyber operations, Tallinn Manual, cyber sovereignty, digital sovereignty, defend forward, persistent engagement
The article critically examines the current discourse on the legal status and substance of “sovereignty” in the context of the application of international law to cyberspace against the backdrop of conflicting political-ideological attitudes. After tracing the origins of the interpretation of “respect for sovereignty” as a primary rule of international law, two approaches to cyberspace are surveyed that challenge the emerging consensus: “cyber imperialism,” embodied by the US and the other Five Eyes members on the one hand, and “cyber Westphalia,” represented by China, Russia, and Iran on the other. Both conceive cyberspace in ways fundamentally irreconcilable with prevailing legal views. A third group of states endorses the “sovereignty-as-rule” understanding but leaves this legal position vulnerable to both authoritarian co-optation and imperialist dismissal. In light of this, the paper offers an alternative interpretation of state practice and international jurisprudence that constructs sovereignty as a principle with derivative primary rules. It is shown that despite not by itself having the status of a rule, the principle of sovereignty allows for the identification of rules that protect the territorial integrity and political independence of states beyond the traditional notions of the prohibition of intervention and the use of force. Following a careful analysis of evidence in existing practice in support of this novel, doctrinally more precise understanding of sovereignty, the policies of “persistent engagement” and “cyber sovereignty” are assessed in light of the argument’s legal implications.
ISSN (Online)
2328-9708
ISSN (Print)
1053-6736
Journal Article
Organizational Research Methods
Eric Quintane, Martin Wood, John Dunn, Lucia Falzon
Subject(s)
Management sciences, decision sciences and quantitative methods
Keyword(s)
Brokering process, behavioral measure, relational events sequences, network algebra
Extant research in organizational networks has provided critical insights into understanding the benefits of occupying a brokerage position. More recently, researchers have moved beyond the brokerage position to consider the brokering processes (arbitration and collaboration) brokers engage in and their implications for performance. However, brokering processes are typically measured using scales that reflect individuals’ orientation toward engaging in a behavior, rather than the behavior itself. In this article, we propose a measure that captures the behavioral process of brokering. The measure indicates the extent to which actors engage in arbitration versus collaboration based on sequences of time stamped relational events, such as emails, message boards, and recordings of meetings. We demonstrate the validity of our measure as well as its predictive ability. By leveraging the temporal information inherent in sequences of relational events, our behavioral measure of brokering creates opportunities for researchers to explore the dynamics of brokerage and their impact on individuals, and also paves the way for a systematic examination of the temporal dynamics of networks.
With permission of SAGE Publishing
ESMT Case Study
ESMT Case Study No. ESMT-421-0191-1
Bianca Schmitz, Ulf Schäfer
Subject(s)
Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s)
Culture, organizational culture, organizational structure and design, leadership styles
At the end of 2008, the founder and employees of MEG - an insurance brokerage firm active in the market since 2003 - were looking forward to a promising future. Having achieved sales of €33 million in 2007 and just short of €54 million in 2008, the company was aiming to hit the €100 million mark in the next financial year. Within a very short time, the firm founded by Mehmet E. Göker as “insurance specialists” had established itself as the second-most successful insurance broker in Germany. Its rapid rise to the top was thanks to a business model that consistently identified and supported customers interested in insurance products - and also thanks to a particular corporate culture at MEG.
Key teaching/learning objectives:
- Introduction to corporate culture
- What is a corporate culture?
- How to establish and change corporate culture?

Subject(s)
Economics, politics and business environment
Keyword(s)
Cybersecurity, governance, Brexit, EU-UK relations, European Union, United Kingdom


The book chapter analyzes the EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement's (TCA) Chapter on future thematic cooperation on cybersecurity. It explains the broader political, technological and regulatory context of cybersecurity cooperation at the international and the EU levels. It then analyzes the TCA's passages individually and within this broader context. Finally, it provides an evaluation and outlook on future EU-UK cooperation on cybersecurity.
Secondary Title
Handels- und Kooperationsvertrag EU/GB
ISBN
978-3-8487-7188-2
Keyword(s)
hedge funds, cash flows, hot hand fallacy, performance streaks, relative weights, smart money
Cash flows to hedge funds are highly sensitive to performance streaks, a streak being defined as subsequent quarters during which a fund performs above or below a benchmark, even after controlling for a wide range of common performance measures. At the same time, streaks have limited predictive power regarding future fund performance. This suggests investors weigh information suboptimally, and their decisions are driven too strongly by a belief in continuation of good performance, consistent with the “hot hand fallacy.” The hedge funds that investors choose to invest in do not perform significantly better than those they divest from. These findings are consistent with overreaction to certain types of information and do not support the notion that sophisticated investors have superior information or superior information processing abilities.
© 2021, INFORMS
Subject(s)
Health and environment; Information technology and systems
Keyword(s)
Public health, epidemic control, information design, strategic behavior
This paper explores how governments may efficiently inform the public about an epidemic to induce compliance with their confinement measures. Using an information design framework, we find the government has an incentive to either downplay or exaggerate the severity of the epidemic if it heavily prioritizes the economy over population health or vice versa. Importantly, we find that the level of economic inequality in the population has an effect on these distortions. The more unequal the disease's economic impact on the population is, the less the government exaggerates and the more it downplays the severity of the epidemic. When the government weighs the economy and population health sufficiently equally, however, the government should always be fully transparent about the severity of the epidemic.
© 2021, INFORMS
Journal Article
Industry and Innovation
Henry Sauermann, Susanne Beck, Carsten Bergenholtz, Marcel Bogers, Tiare-Maria Brasseur, Marie Louise Conradsen, Diletta Di Marco et al.
Subject(s)
Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
Open innovation in Science, openness, collaboration in science, Open Science, interdisciplinary research
Openness and collaboration in scientific research are attracting increasing attention from scholars and practitioners alike. However, a common understanding of these phenomena is hindered by disciplinary boundaries and disconnected research streams. We link dispersed knowledge on Open Innovation, Open Science, and related concepts such as Responsible Research and Innovation by proposing a unifying Open Innovation in Science (OIS) Research Framework. This framework captures the antecedents, contingencies, and consequences of open and collaborative practices along the entire process of generating and disseminating scientific insights and translating them into innovation. Moreover, it elucidates individual-, team-, organisation-, field-, and society‐level factors shaping OIS practices. To conceptualise the framework, we employed a collaborative approach involving 47 scholars from multiple disciplines, highlighting both tensions and commonalities between existing approaches. The OIS Research Framework thus serves as a basis for future research, informs policy discussions, and provides guidance to scientists and practitioners.
Keyword(s)
Price competition, price dispersion, unique equilibrium
JEL Code(s)
D43, L11
We study a canonical model of simultaneous price competition between firms that sell a homogeneous good to consumers who are characterized by the number of prices they are exogenously aware of. Our setting subsumes many employed in the literature over the last several decades. We show there is a unique equilibrium if and only if there exist some consumers who are aware of exactly two prices. The equilibrium we derive is in symmetric mixed strategies. Furthermore, when there are no consumers aware of exactly two prices, we show there is an uncountable-infinity of asymmetric equilibria in addition to the symmetric equilibrium. Our results show the paradigm generically produces a unique equilibrium. We also show that the commonly-sought symmetric equilibrium (which also nests the textbookBertrand pure strategy equilibrium as a special case) is robust to perturbations in consumer behaviour, while the asymmetric equilibria are not.
© 2020 The Editorial Board of The Journal of Industrial Economics and John Wiley & Sons Ltd