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Journal Article
International Economic Review 62 (3): 1081–1110
Subject(s)
Economics, politics and business environment; Information technology and systems
Keyword(s)
online markets, price comparison websites, price dispersion, price competition, platforms, consumer search, consumer welfare
JEL Code(s)
L11, L86, D43
The large and growing industry of price comparison websites (PCWs) or “web aggregators” is poised to benefit consumers by increasing competitive pricing pressure on firms by acquainting shoppers with more prices. However, these sites also charge firms for sales, which feeds back to raise prices. I find that introducing any number of PCWs to a market increases prices for all consumers, both those who use the sites, and those who do not. I then use my framework to identify ways in which a more competitive environment could be achieved.
Volume
62
Journal Pages
1081–1110
ISSN (Online)
1468-2354
Subject(s)
Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
Patents, intellectual property rights

This article summarizes the century-old debate whether a patent system spurs innovation or is rather a burden to society.
Volume
74
Journal Pages
6–9
Journal Article
Organization Science 32 (4): 987–1008
Paola Criscuolo, Linus Dahlander, Thorsten Grohsjean, Ammon Salter (2021)
Subject(s)
Technology, R&D management
Keyword(s)
Selection, novelty, decision-making, innovation, panel
We examine how groups fall prey to the sequence effect when they make choices based on informed assessments of complex situations, for example, when evaluating research and development (R&D) projects. The core argument is that the temporal sequence of selection matters because projects that appear in a sequence following a funded project are themselves less likely to receive funding. Building on the idea that selecting R&D projects is a demanding process that drains participants’ mental and emotional resources, we further theorize the moderating effect of the influence of the timing of the panel meeting on the sequence effect. We test these conjectures using a randomization in sequence order from several rounds of R&D project selection at a leading professional service firm. We find robust support for the existence of a sequence effect in R&D as well as for the moderating effect. We further explore different explanations for the sequence effect and how it passes from the individual to the panel. These findings have broader implications for the literature on innovation and search in general and on group decision making for R&D, specifically, as they suggest that a previously overlooked dimension affects selection outcomes.
Copyright © 2021, The Author(s)
Volume
32
Journal Pages
987–1008
Journal Article
Organization Science 32 (4): 1079–1099
Chengwei Liu, Jerker Denrell (2021)
Subject(s)
Management sciences, decision sciences and quantitative methods; Strategy and general management
Keyword(s)
Reinforcing processes, quality, performance evaluation, movie industry, luck
When does market success indicate superior merit? We show that when consumer choices between products with equal prices depend on quality but also on past popularity, more popular products are not necessarily of higher quality. Rather, a medium level of popularity may be associated with lower quality than lower levels of popularity. Using a formal model we show that this kind of non-monotonic association occurs when reinforcing processes are strong. More generally, a dip can occur when outcomes depend on both quality and resources and the latter are allocated bimodally, with some being given a lot of resources and most receiving little. Empirically, we illustrate that such a dip occurs in the association between movie theater sales and ratings. The presence of a dip in the outcome-quality association complicates learning from market outcomes and evaluation of individuals and new ventures, challenges the legitimacy of stratification systems, and creates opportunities for sophisticated evaluators who understand the dip.
Copyright © 2021, The Author(s)
Volume
32
Journal Pages
1079–1099
Conference Proceeding
Academy of Management Proceedings 2021 (1)
Anke Dassler, Evgenia Lysova, Svetlana Khapova, Konstantin Korotov (2021)
Subject(s)
Human resources management/organizational behavior
There is a growing interest in the concept of employer attractiveness. Yet, research appears to be unsystematic in how it conceptualizes and studies the phenomenon. In this paper, we argue that thus far most research on employer attractiveness has combined perspectives about employer attractiveness of both prospective employees and for exiting employees, making therefore little differentiation with a reference to the question: For whom is the employer attractive? In this paper, we argue that this is problematic considering existing evidence signaling that there are differences in the employer attractiveness attributes between the two groups. With this paper, we aim to extend the literature on employer attractiveness by shifting the conversation to the perceptions of employees. We systematically review 48 articles on employer attractiveness from the employee perspective, and offer a model, capturing Inputs, Mediators and Outputs (IMO) of the concept. The paper concludes with a discussion of what our findings mean for future research and practice.
With permission of the Academy of Management
Volume
2021
ISSN (Online)
2151-6561
ISSN (Print)
0065-0668
Conference Proceeding
Academy of Management Proceedings 2021 (1)
Jose Pablo Arrieta, Chengwei Liu (2021)
Subject(s)
Strategy and general management
Superior profit usually depends on capturing opportunities that rivals fail to identify or utilize. A key challenge for strategists is how to be both different and viable. Prior research has tended to associate contrarian opportunities with rivals’ behavioral failures. Herein, we argue that contrarian opportunities can emerge endogenously in an ecology whenever there is a dominant logic. We develop our argument in the context of organizational design, in which the majority voting rule is demonstrated to be an efficient and typically mainstream approach for screening alternatives. We formally demonstrate when antimajority—an unconventional screening rule where acceptance depends on the minority’s approval and majority’s disapproval—exploits the opportunities left behind by the majority rule. We illustrate how a contrarian niche emerges, and its scope conditions using the case of an antimajority voting venture capitalist firm together with an evolutionary model of competing rules. More generally, a contrarian niche emerges not necessarily because the dominant firms have been suboptimal or inefficient but because their homogeneity predicts an exploitable blind spot, preserving opportunities for strategists who can afford to be contrary.
With permission of the Academy of Management
Volume
2021
ISSN (Online)
2151-6561
ISSN (Print)
0065-0668
Conference Proceeding
Academy of Management Proceedings 2021 (1)
Tatiana Lluent, Carla Rua-Gomez, Adam M. Kleinbaum, Raina A. Brands, Tiziana Casciaro, Jasmien Khattab, Eric Quintane et al. (2021)
Subject(s)
Diversity and inclusion; Human resources management/organizational behavior
Keyword(s)
Diversity, networks, career advancement
The aim of this symposium is to understand, through the lenses of social identity theory and stereotypes theory, how network utilization and alters’ evaluations vary for members of minority and majority groups. Furthermore, the symposium also aims to explore how these theories contribute to explaining differences in the outcomes that members of majority and minority groups achieve even though they occupy similar network positions.
With permission of the Academy of Management
Volume
2021
ISSN (Online)
2151-6561
ISSN (Print)
0065-0668
Conference Proceeding
Academy of Management Proceedings 2021 (1)
Susanne Beck, Marion Kristin Poetz, Henry Sauermann, Maryann P. Feldman, Kevin Boudreau, Linus Dahlander, Louise Gunning-Schepers et al. (2021)
Subject(s)
Technology, R&D management
Scientific research has for a long time been the domain of professional scientists, often working within the confines of academic or corporate labs. However, there are increasing calls from funding agencies, policy makers, and civil society to involve “crowds” and “citizens” in the research process. The hope is that such involvement can increase the productivity of research as well as the relevance and societal adoption of the knowledge that is produced. A growing number of crowd science projects now operate in fields as diverse as astronomy, biology, history, medicine, and physics. Results have been published in top tier journals such as Nature, Science, and PNAS. However, most of these projects “use” crowds for empirical tasks such as collecting and coding data (e.g., Zooniverse), or for problem solving (e.g., Foldit). There are only few efforts to involve crowds in earlier, “agenda setting” stages of scientific research such as the identification of research questions, the selection of problems that should be investigated, or the development, evaluation and funding of research proposals. To gain a deeper understanding of this emerging topic, distinguished panel members including scholars of science and science policy, as well as experts on crowdsourcing and open innovation, organizers of real-world efforts to involve citizens in agenda setting and interested AoM members discuss why crowd involvement in setting research agendas is, so far, more limited, whether crowds should get more involved in setting research agendas and if so, how this could be organized, and what the boundary conditions for crowd involvement in setting research agendas are.
With permission of the Academy of Management
Volume
2021
ISSN (Online)
2151-6561
ISSN (Print)
0065-0668
Conference Proceeding
Academy of Management Proceedings 2021 (1)
Stefan Wagner, Karin Hoisl (2021)
Inventors recombine existing knowledge elements to identify new technological solutions and novel inventions. We study how inventors’ reliance on different sources of knowledge, their personality traits, and the diversification of the organizational knowledge of their employers jointly determine recombination outcomes. In our theorizing, we distinguish inventors’ overall recombination success from the share of technologically novel recombinations. Our predictions are tested relying on a large-scale survey of 1,327 industrial inventors, enhanced with patent-based measures of recombination outcomes. The results confirm earlier findings that access to a diverse set of knowledge is positively related to both recombination success and the rate of novel recombinations. Further, we are able to show that this clear relation holds only for inventors employed by firms with low knowledge diversification. Finally, personality dominates the effect of inventors’ reliance on different sources of knowledge and is relatively more important.
With permission of the Academy of Management
Volume
2021
ISSN (Online)
2151-6561
ISSN (Print)
0065-0668
Conference Proceeding
Academy of Management Proceedings 2021 (1)
Chengwei Liu, Jerker C. Denrell, Scott Cohn Ganz (2021)
The assumption that better performance today predicts better performance tomorrow pervades nearly all behavioral theories of learning from experience in organizations. Because of the widespread reliance on the higher-is-better heuristic, theories predicting performance non-monotonicity---higher past performance generating lower future performance---are of long-standing interest in management theory and economic sociology. The extent of real-world violations of the higher-is-better heuristic is, at its core, an empirical question. However, there is very little research testing the higher-is-better assumption, despite its ubiquity in organizations and markets and the panoply of mechanisms detailing when it might fail. In part, the lack of empirical research on this very important question is driven by the weaknesses of existing methods for detecting non-monotonic relationships in data. The method applied here, which adopts a "shape constrained'' approach to statistical inference, avoids the well-known problems of testing non-monotonic associations in commonly-used methods based on linear regression. Our paper empirically tests the hypothesis of performance monotonicity in 12 datasets across four commonly-studied domains. Performance monotonicity is rejected in eight out of the twelve datasets examined and at least one dataset in all four domains demonstrates a non-monotonic performance pattern.
With permission of the Academy of Management
Volume
2021
ISSN (Online)
2151-6561
ISSN (Print)
0065-0668